The answer is NO. Asylum is a form of protection for people who flee their countries because they fear persecution. But if you’re physically present in the United States, you’re not eligible to file for this application.
However, if someone abuses your immigration status, you may qualify for the T Visa, a temporary immigration benefit that enables certain victims of a severe form of trafficking in persons to remain in the USA. For example, when an employer or a company threatens to report you to ICE if you refuse to work overtime.